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Many of the processes involved in energy metabolism rely on various nutrients
as co-factors for enzymes that drive the various processes. Common among
these nutrient co-factors are B-complex vitamins. Ensuring adequate B vitamin
intake is important if efficient energy metabolism is to be maintained.

Multi vitamin and mineral formula
In addition to the B-complex vitamins, a number of other nutrients are required
for the various processes of energy metabolism. These include vitamin C,
magnesium, zinc, manganese and iron, making a multivitamin and mineral
complex an important recommendation for those whose diet may be deficient in
these key co-factor nutrients.

Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine (gPLC)
Carnitine is responsible for the transport of long chain fatty acids into mitochondria,
where they are metabolized into energy. In a study, researchers assessed three groups of
patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who took either 2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine,
2 grams of PLC, or a combination of the two. Significant improvements were found in
59% of the patients taking the acetyl-L-carnitine and in 63%of patients taking PLC.
The main effect of the PLC was that it helped to improve symptoms of general fatigue.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Also known as ubiquinone, CoQ10 is an essential compound in energy production
within the cell mitochondria, which tends to decline with age. Clinical trials have
shown improvements in physical performance and aerobic energy capacity with
CoQ10 ingestion.

Research has demonstrated that the Eurasian herb rhodiola possesses significant
adaptogenic properties (increasing tolerance to mental, physical and environmental stress).
It has also been shown to increase essential energy metabolites, adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), and creatine phosphate in the muscle and brain mitochondria. Studies show that
rhodiola reduces fatigue, increases endurance and greatly enhances mental performance.

Siberian ginseng
Stress can be a major factor in fatigue and although Siberian ginseng is not a
true ginseng species, like ginseng it increases tolerance to various stressors (e.g.
mental, physical, environmental). This herb helps normalise the way in which
the body responds to stress triggers and acts to regulate the manufacture and
secretion of adrenal hormones. It also strengthens the adrenal glands
themselves, which is especially important to those suffering from chronic stress.

Studies suggest a role for D-ribose in fatigue and myalgia. Fibromyalgia is linked to
chronic fatigue syndrome and is characterised by muscle aches and stiffness in multiple
sites around the body. Scientists think that it may be associated with a muscular
imbalance between adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and as a
key component of the nucleotide adenosine, D-ribose is thought to promote proper
energy metabolism and thus help restore normal muscle function.

Fatigue Summary
Nutrient/Herb Typical intake range
B-complex As per manufacturer’s directions
Multivitamin and mineral As per manufacturer’s directions
gPLC1 500 – 2000mg of each per day
CoQ102 30 – 200mg per day
Rhodiola rosea extract3 250 – 750mg per day
Siberian ginseng extract4 300 – 900mg per day
D-Ribose5 3 - 10g per day

Saturated fats
Trans/hydrogenated fats
Refined/processed foods
Caffeinated beverages
Pesticide exposure
Artificial additives/preservatives


Complex carbohydrates
High quality proteins
Nuts and seeds
Oily fish

Lifestyle Factors

Ensure sufficient calorie intake to cover energy needs
Minimise impact of stress – utilise stress management techniques

1. Use in conjunction with other medications under medical supervision only.
2. Use under medical supervision if taking Warfarin as CoQ10 reduces the effectiveness of
Warfarin. Concurrent use with heart medication only under medical supervision.
3. Do not use during pregnancy or lactation. Concurrent use with anti-depressant medication under
medical supervision only.
4. Do not use in pregnancy or lactation. Avoid concurrent use with anti-diabetic and blood pressure
medication unless under medical supervision.
5. May cause increased uric levels so should be avoided by those with gout. May cause
hypoglycaemia so diabetics should use with caution and under medical supervision. Avoid if
pregnant or breastfeeding.