Gateway Health News

Arthritis (Osteo)

Arthritis (Osteo)

Celadrin is a relatively new development in the support of joint health but is rapidly
gaining an excellent reputation as more studies are completed. It is a complex
consisting of various fatty acids that is easily able to penetrate cell membranes, which
enhances membrane health and integrity. Celadrin appears to inhibit the production of
inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins and research suggests a potential
benefit to those with arthritis. In one study sixty-four patients with chronic
osteoarthritis of the knee were given either Celadrin or a placebo and evaluated after
30 and 68 days. Results indicated that compared to placebo, Celadrin improves knee
range of motion and overall joint function. It was concluded that Celadrin may be an
alternative to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for those with

Glucosamine sulphate provides raw material for the production of proteoglycans and
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), important structural components of cartilage. An increase
in glucosamine in the diet correlates to an increase in the production of
glycosaminoglycans with subsequent increased water retention in the cartilage matrix
(water retention is key to the cushioning properties of cartilage). In addition,
supplemental glucosamine appears to stimulate collagen production by the
chondrocytes as well as promoting normal chondrocyte metabolism resulting in
cartilage repair and reduced breakdown of healthy cartilage. Several studies have
reported that glucosamine not only stimulates cartilage production, but also seems to
reduce pain and improve joint function in osteoarthritis. In one study, 500 mg of
glucosamine given three times per day reduced pain, swelling, and joint tenderness in
the knees of 80% of the participants. Glucosamine sulphate is one one of the most
researched substances in relation to joint heath and is consistently found to be superior
to NSAID medication.

Chondroitin sulphate is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and as such is one of the
major structural components of cartilage, tendons and bones. Chondroitin sulphate is a
sulphur bearing compound, which is supportive of collagen synthesis and connective
tissue stabilisation in cartilage. Chondroitin sulphate aids the retention of water in the
cartilage structure, a factor that is thought to improve its shock-absorbing properties.
In a French study, 50 patients suffering with osteoarthritis of the knee were given oral
doses of 800 to 1200 mg daily of either chondroitin sulfate or an anti-inflammatory
medication. Cartilage tissue samples were taken at the start of the study and then again
after 3 months of therapy. The group receiving the chondroitin sulfate actually
experienced cartilage repair whereas those receiving the anti-inflammatory medication
did not. In a meta-analysis of studies on OA revealed that glucosamine and chondroitin
provides significant structural and symptomatic efficacy in knee osteoarthritis.


MSM is a source of organic sulphur, which is required for the formation of the amino
acids methionine and cysteine, both of which are required for the synthesis of collagen,
the fibrous protein matrix that forms the foundation of cartilage. Sulphur also plays a
critical role in GAG formation. Studies have suggested that sulphur concentrations in
arthritic cartilage are about on third the level of unaffected joints. Similar studies have
revealed cysteine in fingernails to be 25% lower in arthritis sufferers. MSM also
appears to offer significant anti-inflammatory properties.

Nutritional antioxidants may protect the cartilage from being destroyed by free
radicals as well as helping with the production of new cartilage. Antioxidants are
important in the modulation of inflammatory processes and deficiencies of various
antioxidant nutrients are often observed in arthritis. A broad range of antioxidant
intake is recommended to derive their maximum synergistic properties.

Osteoarthritis Summary
Nutrient/Herb Typical intake range
Celadrin1 500 – 2000mg per day
Glucosamine sulphate (or hydrochloride)2 1000 – 2000mg per day
Chondroitin sulphate3 1000 – 2000mg per day
MSM 4 500 – 3000mg per day
Antioxidant formula As per manufacturer’s directions

Nightshade vegetables
Dairy foods
Red meat
Excessive animal proteins
Trans/hydrogenated fats
Refined/processed foods

Complex carbohydrates
Oily fish
Nuts and seeds
Green leafy vegetables
Fruit (especially berries)
Vegetarian protein sources

Lifestyle Factors
Take regular gentle exercise if possible (e.g. swimming)

1. Possible interaction with Warfarin – concurrent use with medical supervision only.
2. Although interactions are rare, diabetics should be monitored if they intend to use
glucosamine. Allergy - the most common supplemental form is derived from shellfish
3. If taking warfarin, please check with a doctor as chondroitin in conjunction may increase
4. Some literature suggests that MSM augments warfarin, so supplementation alongside should
probably be avoided.